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NILO

Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years, 6 months ago
 FIUME NILO    RIVER NILE   RIO NILE

 

 

  •  
Some questions about river Nile

 

Dove nasce? (in quale Regione o Stato? Su quale montagna? A che altezza?)
Where does that river rise? (In what region, country, mountain. At which altitude?)
 
  •          north-eastern part of  Africa

     

  •     the source at Lake Victoria (located in Central East Africa) and then heading north to the mouth of the Mediterranean

     

  •    total length of 6,650 kilometers (4,123 miles).

     

Quanto è lungo?
How long is it?
  •  6,650 kilometers (4,123 miles).
Qual è la larghezza massima?
How wide is it?
  •  2900000 km
Qual è la profondità massima?
How deep is it?
  •  About 8 to 11 km deep
Qual è la portata massima?
Which is its flow rate?
  •  It flows if there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very fast. It joins the Nile approximately 300 km (200 miles) north of Khartoum.
Quali regioni o Stati attraversa?
Which regions or countries it flows across?
 

§         Egypt

 

§         Sudan

 

§         Ethiopia

 

§         Eritrea

 

§         Kenya

 

§         Rwanda

 

§         Congo

 

§         Tanzania

 

§         Burundi

 

§         Uganda

 

Quali importanti città tocca?
Which important cities it flows through?
 

§         Cairo in Egypt

 

§         Aswan in Egypt

 

§         Khartoum in Sudan

E’ navigabile?
Is it a navigable river?
  •  yes
da grandi navi o da piccole barche?
Is that river sailed by small or large size boats or ships?
  •  Small and large boats
Quanti e quali sono gli affluenti?
How many and which are its affluents ?
 
  •        The flow rate of water in the Nile about 300 million cubic meters per day

     

Fornisce acqua per quali attività?
Does it yeld water for what activities?
  •  Yes it does
Ci sono esondazioni? In che periodo dell’anno e in che tratti? Sono sempre solo dannose?
Is it responsible for regular floodings? In which part of the year and in what parts of its path it spills? Are its floodings always harmful?
 
  •   Heavy rain is responsible for regular flooding

     

  •       Start flooding in July when the rainy season begins in mid-Africa, and raise the level of the river during rainy flow north. The flood waters normally decline in September

     

                Yes,in some times its floodings are harmful
Ci sono periodi di secca? In che periodo dell’anno e in che tratti?
Has it any dryness periods? In which month(s) of the year and in which parts of its path?
  •  The flood waters normally decline in September
Quali animali e piante vivono in questo fiume?
What animal species and plants are living along that river?
 
  •   Animals = Nile Crocodile

     

  •     Plants = Lettuce and Nile flower

     

Quali sono i problemi da risolvere per questo fiume? (animali o piante dannosi, inquinamento...)
Are there any problems to be solved for that river? (harmfull plants or animals, pollution...)
 
  •        Yes there is

     

  •   Theses problems are

     

  •      A. Pollution resulting from incorrect behavior:
        Traditionally, in some villages Alaatsal water canals and the river, washing and cleaning vegetables and poultry and livestock. Even entered the villages clean water, the population resort to transfer water from the river and canals for household use. These behaviors causing water pollution and make them a source of disease transmission. Growing and dangerous when it received some of the villages and small towns in the disbursement of canals and drainage subsidiary banks and the river. Do not only have surface water, but goes beyond that to groundwater, which raises a few rear Some residents, including the water crisis to their home with hand-pumps. attitudes and misconceptions among the remnants of factories also exchange Others address the Nile, and conversion of agricultural drainage on the course and what Alinl bear agricultural drainage water from pesticides and fertilizer residues. ratio and increasing pollution in the canals because whenever decreased water in which the impact of canals subsidiary pollution becomes more serious with a few disbursed. causes of pollution and also the dumping of animal corpses inside the canals and banks.

     

 

 

  •       B. Agricultural pollution:

     

    Changed environment grass after the High Dam in the Nile water. One example of this: a valuable plants floating on the river Nile and lots Adass water and the water Lettuce and Lotus, and submerged plants Kboukchoc water. Affect the growth of grasses and the fish where hinders movement and occupies place. also had herbs Nile adverse effects on public health by proliferation of types of parasites by Vtakbe in those plants floating or submerged shell Iraqat mosquitoes and bilharzias. types and those parasites: worms flatfish, paper and drum. dangerous, but these worms: schistosomiasis that afflict the rights when bathing or swim or ablution.

 

  •        C. Industrial pollution:

     


    There are other pollutants of the river Nile resulting from radiation and atomic waste and dumping of solid materials and the use of radiation-saturated poison and electricity for fishing. Edi which to influence human health and disease after infection. Including: kidney cancer and liver inflation.

 

  •       D. Pollution health:

     


    The Wastewater Pollution is one of the worst sources of pollution of the River Nile and watercourses, as a result of the dumping of sewage water in natural water, making the water unfit for humans and for the wealth of water. Result, many of the diseases that may cause death to humans. , including: typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis and skin diseases.

 

  •       After the deadly pollution of the waters of River Nile either a human or agricultural waste, industrial or sewage, the Governments of the Nile Basin countries of many efforts that have been through the implementation of many of the activities and projects aimed at protecting the Nile water and preserved. Had been selected and City Entebbe, Uganda, to serve as its headquarters.

     

  •    And to achieve this it is necessary to involve civil society in planning for the protection of the Nile water and preserved. Was also the perception in the Nile Basin Initiative NBD, and therefore was a "Forum Nile Basin" (Nile Basin Discourse NBD). Support from the World Bank and under auspices of the International Union for Conservation of Nature to work to promote partnership between civil society organizations in the activities and programmes with the governments particularly with respect to that initiative.

     

  •       runs and the Forum for temporary committee include representatives of civil society from nine countries of the Nile basin countries (not accede to Eritrea this forum so now), which represent Egypt "General Arab Bureau for Youth e environment." and the endeavor of this forum to the formation of "national forums" (NNBDF).
Il fiume in quale mare sfocia?
Which sea it flows into?
 

§         Mediterranean

 

La sua foce è a delta o ad estuario?
Is its mouth an estuary or a delta?
  •  Delta ( Damietta branch ) (Rashid branch )
Entra od esce da qualche lago?
Is it originated by any lake or has a lake in it course?
 

§         The both

 

§         Lake Victoria, Kyoga Lake ,Albert Lake and Tana Lake

 

Questo fiume forma cascate?
Does it form waterfalls?
 
  •          Yes it does

     

  •          waterfalls near Kampala in Uganda

     

  •       Waterfalls Kabalija

     

& many  Several Falls
Su questo fiume sono nate e si sono sviluppate grandi civiltà?
Have been any great civilitations born and grown around it?
 

§         Yes

 

§         Egypt's Pharaonic civilization (Egypt),Nubian civilization(northern Sudan)

 

 

 

The River Nile

 

 The Nile River is the longest river in the world, stretching for 4,187 miles. The Nile flows from south to north and is formed by three major tributaries: the White Nile, the Blue Nile

and the Atbara.

 

The Blue Nile has its source in the highlands of the African country of Ethiopia, by Lake Tana. The runoff from spring rain and melting snow caused the annual summer flood of the Nile that the Egyptians depended on for water to irrigate their crops, and deposit fertile top soil.

 

Just north of Khartoum the combined White and Blue Nile meet their final major tributary, the Atbara which also has its source in the Ethiopian highlands.

 

The Nile then plunges into a canyon. Before the construction of the Aswan High Dam; the Nile rolled through a series of six rapids, called cataracts, between northern Sudan and southern Egypt. Since construction of the dam, the river has gradually changed its course

 

 

 

North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries), the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east. Lake Nasser is a man-made lake created by the construction of the Aswan High Dam opened in 1971. The dam was built to regulate the flow of the Nile River, and thus benefit the region's inhabitants. However, technology often also disrupts a local ecosystem, the life and nature it affects.

 

 

North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries), the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east. Lake Nasser is a man-made lake created by the construction of the Aswan High Dam opened in 1971. The dam was built to regulate the flow of the Nile River, and thus benefit the region's inhabitants. However, technology often also disrupts a local ecosystem, the life and nature it affects.

 

 

 

 

The canyon that was once behind where the dam is now was flooded after the dam was built. Before the region was flooded for the dam, some Ancient sites were carefully moved. Others were permanently covered and destroyed by the water.

Lake Nasser stretches over a distance of 312 miles.

Gone are the days when Egyptians worry that the Nile will flood too high, destroying their crops; or fall too low, not providing proper irrigation.

To enjoy the benefits of a steady river flow, thousands of people’s homes were submerged when the dam went into operation and Lake Nasser was formed.

 

 

 

The Aswan High Dam has caused other changes. The water surface of the lake has reduced the average temperature in the region. The dam has also harnessed the water for the production of electricity and navigation has been improved.

 

In one generation, thousands of years of life along the Nile River have been permanently altered.

 

 

 

The River Nile and its banks

 

 

 The Nile is truly the River of Life and has been revered in Egypt since ancient times. Until the Aswan High Dam was built, only 4% of Egypt was cultivated, but this has now been extended to 6%. Nearly all habitation owes its existence to the narrow strip of land either side of the river itself or to the very fertile Nile Delta in the north.

 

One explanation for the shape of the Ankh, the ancient Egyptian symbol for eternal life, is that it is thought to represent the Nile and its importance to life and consequently their religion. The two side arms represent the two banks of the river - East for the Living and West for the After-life. The top loop is for the productivity and fertility of the Nile Delta; the stem is for the Nile itself.

 

 

 

The proximity of the Desert to the river is a constant reminder of the fragility of the narrow strip of life which survives all the way from Aswan to Cairo. Many of the dwellings and settlements have a very simple existence with few modern amenities.

 

  

Boats of the River Nile

 

The history of Egypt is totally dominated by the River Nile. At one time nearly all transportation was by boat along the river. Consequently it was always thought that Gods would travel by boat - or barque as it was called. The souls of the dead also traveled by barque in the afterlife.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                

 

FELUCCAS: - The felucca has remained, over the centuries, the primary transportation of the Nile. Its ancient form still graces the river as it has done since the time of the Pharaohs. Motorized barges transport bulk material and modern cruise ships transport tourists, but the felucca remains despite modern alternatives.

 

 The felucca rarely has any form of engine and relies entirely on the breeze which builds during the day and usually subsides at night. Some of the craft today are used to carry tourists who wish to enjoy an eternally peaceful journey carried along by the gentle breeze and the currents of the river.

 

Few are now made entirely of wood, but the basic layout has barely changed. They don't have a keel as such, but a heavy centre plate which can be raised in the shallows. The sails are seriously low tech affairs made of native cotton and other natural fibers.

 

Tour Boats: - There are a phenomenal number of tourist boats on the Nile and most of them resemble a floating block of flats - they have little charm on the outside and absolutely no connection with Egypt on the inside. They are floating hotels designed to keep the Western traveler sanitized from the world outside - but Pharaoh does exact his revenge!!

 

The Nile River is possibly the most famous river in history. It was by its banks that one of the oldest civilizations in the world began. Not surprisingly, the Nile teems with life. Many different types of animals, birds, and fish all call the Nile River home. Hundreds of years ago, even hippos and lions could be found here in the Nile Valley.

 

The crocodile's eyes and nostrils are on top of the head so it can see and breathe while the rest of it is underwater. As an added advantage, its ears and nostrils can close when it dives, and a nictitating membrane (a transparent eyelid) closes over the eye to keep water out.

 

 

 

 

 Nile Crocodiles range all over Africa, eating almost anything (including each other), but rarely moving away from their chosen body of water. Hatchlings eat small fish and insects; adults will go after turtles, baboons, and even the gigantic wildebeest. They live in large "communities" of several dozen crocodiles, but even there they tend to leave each other alone except during a "feeding frenzy" when they will all unite to take down a much larger animal.

 

 

The Importance of the Nile for the Ancient Egyptians

 

 

 

The Nile River has always been the backbone of Egypt. The mighty river flows for some 4,000 miles from the mountains of Equatorial Africa (Blue Nile) and Lake Victoria (White Nile) before it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. Without the Nile River and its annual inundation Ancient Egypt would never have come into being. Its fertile valley was renewed every year with rich silt deposits laid down during the flooding.

 

 

Kilometers were placed at various points along the Nile in order to monitor the changes in the water level. It was recorded that at the start of the flooding the clear waters would turn a turbid red.

 

As the agriculture of Egypt revolved around the Nile, so did the social life of the ancient Egyptians. During inundation when there was less to do, people had more time for recreational activities, they played games, held sporting tournaments and regularly feasted.

 

 

 When the River Nile receded the appearance of the land had radically changed and there was a great rush to restore boundaries. There were many disputes as markers had moved, banks had collapsed, and distinguishable features had disappeared.

 

TRANSPORT

The river was also the chief means of transport. It was their highway, making roads superfluous, except between close villages. Virtually everything moved by boat.  

 

FOOD AND SPORT

 

 

 

The Nile, for the most part, is a gently flowing river and in the time of the ancients, was crammed with fish. It’s easy flow made fishing very popular. Everyone enjoyed fishing, from the young to old, peasant to noble.

 

 

 

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